The NeoMilk project explores the introduction and spread of cattle-based agriculture by early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik (LBK) farmers and its implications for modelling of the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in Northern and Central Europe during the 6th millennium BC. This revolutionary shift in human subsistence strategy completely reshaped prehistoric European culture, biology and economy, in ways that underlie modern life virtually worldwide. These Neolithic cultural and biological changes resulted in the widespread dissemination of dairy economies globally, and the evolution of Lactase Persistence (LP) in Europeans. The multi-billion Euro modern dairy economy is a direct consequence of human-induced biological reformulations made in this critical phase in European prehistory. The project is funded by an ERC Advanced Grant (2013-2018) accorded to Richard P. Evershed.